The church, officially known as the Real Colegiata de Santa María de la Encarnación la Mayor de Ronda, was built over a former Islamic mosque, some elements of which, such as the former mihrab, still survive to this day. It was founded in 1485, after the town was taken by the Catholic Monarchs.
Its construction began in the Gothic style but completed in the Renaissance style as is seen in the cathedrals of Málaga and Jaén.
Inside, the cathedral boasts altarpieces of great beauty featuring exceptional paintings, such as the image of Our Lady of Sorrows.
A collection of ornaments and gold and silver works in the sacristy complete the ensemble. Outside, next to the magnificent Gothic bell tower made of brick, there is a balconied gallery built for viewing events held in the plaza below.